construction

Ways to make your Construction smart & Sustainable

Infrastructure Industry is the most Dynamic & Growing Industry in world, but in the way it is growing that is very dangerous for our environment as it is responsible for various reasons  like climate change, resource depletion, pollution, and peak oil. These issues are all accelerating rapidly, and all have strong links with the building industry.

The building industry is hugely dependent on cheap oil, from the manufacture and transportation of its materials, to the machinery and tools used in demolition and construction. In the UK, it uses vast quantities of fossil fuels, accounting for over half of total carbon emissions that lead to climate change. The built environment is also responsible for significant amounts of air, soil and water pollution, and millions of tonnes of landfill waste. This is a situation that clearly needs to change.

Reducing Energy Consumption

With the inevitability of declining fossil fuels, and the threat of global climate change, reducing our energy consumption is an essential survival strategy. Choosing to build green saves energy. The low embodied energy of green products ensures that very little energy went into their manufacture and production, with a direct reduction in carbon emissions. Eco friendly design methodology can further reduce energy consumption by minimising energy inputs for heating, cooling and light, and incorporating energy efficient appliances. Saving energy for the occupant also saves money – an issue that will become increasingly important as the cost of fossil fuels inevitably rises in the near future.

Eco-friendly construction can not only help to create a better outdoor environment, it can also help to build a healthier indoor environment. Conventional building materials and methods have been linked to a wide range of health problems. Chemical pollutants from paints, solvents, plastics and composite timbers, along with biological pollutants such as dust mites and moulds are known to cause symptoms such as asthma, headaches, depression, eczema, palpitations and chronic fatigue syndrome. Green buildings eliminate these problems through good ventilation design, breathable walls, and the use of natural, non-toxic products and materials.

There are many good reasons why we should use eco-friendly construction methods and materials. It can improve the health of our planet, and the health of our own lives. It also supports local business and helps strengthen the local economy, which in turn helps to build our communities into vibrant, prosperous and desirable places to live.

 

Green building is not only a wise choice for our future; it is also a necessary choice. The construction industry must adopt eco-friendly practices and materials that reduce its impacts, before we reach a point of irreversible damage to our life supporting systems. The UK Government is beginning to recognise this urgency, and is committed to integrating green specifications into building regulations and codes, but the process of developing policy is slow. The industry needs to take its own initiative and find alternative ways to build, using green, renewable energy resources, and adopt non-polluting practises and materials that reduce, recycle and reuse, before it is too late.

 

 

1.     Design of Building

Smaller buildings are generally more environmentally friendly and cheaper to run. Intelligent design means making the best use of space possible. It forces developers to start thinking creatively about space, and the future of infrastructure.

2.     Consider The Placement Of Windows

Something as simple as the placement of windows can make a great deal of difference to the atmosphere of a room. Innovative technology for builders assist in identifying the most strategic window positions to take advantage of sunlight and natural breezes.

The problem with poorly sealed doors and windows is they let air flow in and out of the home. This means that your heating and cooling systems have to work harder to keep the house at a constant temperature, which wastes energy and costs you money.

With quality certified windows, you could save $126-$465 per year when replacing single pane windows. When building a new house, choose quality doors and windows that won’t make your heating and cooling system work harder.

3.     Design the Insulation for Building

Insulation is another thing to consider when building an eco-friendly property. Investing in proper insulation keeps the area cool in the hotter months, and warm during the winter, minimising the need to run heating and cooling units regularly.Conventional buildings use insulation materials that contain toxic chemicals such as petrochemicals and toxic adhesives. Sustainable construction presents a range of safe, natural and readily available materials. Some of these materials are more affordable than their commercial counterparts. These materials include sheep’s wool, which is an affordable and sustainable material that can be used as insulation. Others include recycled cotton, which can be sourced from shreds of discarded clothing, representing a sustainable and non-toxic insulation option. Wood fiber can also be used as it is made from wood chips, which are a by-product of the timber industry. The chips are fused together using natural adhesives.

4.     COOL ROOF for the Building

In particularly North & South India, a building’s exposure to the sun can result in heat being trapped inside the roof, gradually warming up the interior of the building. Green roofs (Cool roofs)are an innovative solution to this problem. Heat-reducing methods such as using reflective roof paint, roof covering, tiles, or planting grass will result in a cooler building, and save the energy and money it would otherwise take to cool it.

5.     Assess Durability and Lifespan Of Foundations

Life expectancy in architecture and construction is growing in importance. Durable materials such as brick, stone, and concrete have a longer lifetime and are more eco-friendly during the demolition and disposal phase. Extensions, renovations, and refurbishments stretch the life of a building, especially when structures are built using durable materials.

6.     Use Sustainable, Biodegradable, and Recyclable Materials Where Possible

Reusing old materials where possible is an easy way to save money and reduce environmental impacts of your construction. Products like recycled lumber, plastic, and glass are less damaging than buying new. Biodegradable materials are also being produced with reduced energy costs and pollution.

7.     Water Saving Methods

 

Conservation of water is a very important element of sustainable construction, be it a residential, industrial or commercial. These strategies are often simple and can be implemented into any kind of construction project. Smart, eco-friendly techniques include rain water collection systems for example. If collected and stored, recycled rain water can be used for things like landscape irrigation. Additionally, water condensation from HVAC units can also be collected and used for similar reasons. Recycling water takes advantage of resources that are readily available, which would otherwise go down the drain.

Reducing water wastage is easily achieved by installing water fixtures to reduce the flow of toilets, showerheads and taps. Encourage clients to purchase eco friendly products by calculating their future water savings.

8.  Install Renewable Energy Sources in the Building

Solar power converts the sun’s radiation into energy. Installing solar panels may be expensive, but in the long run saves a lot of money and energy consumption. However, to take advantage of solar power, location must be considered, as well as the positioning of solar panels. Estimating software assists in determining how much power can be collected and saved.

With soaring energy costs, investing in solar power presents a long-term sustainable solution. Not only will this be a cost-saving measure in the future, solar power reduces your grid reliance and lessens the strain on electricity providers. Solar power transforms roofs of homes and buildings into generators that help to keep power and electricity flowing. To take a step further, photovoltaic windows can with solar cells can be used, creating window panels that adjust transparency and can help to control interior temperatures.

Another option for clean and renewable energy revolves around wind power. Turbine farms of all sizes can be used to help produce energy for any given building. These include vertical axis and helical wind turbines on rooftops which can reduce consumption. The greatest advantage of wind turbines is that they require little maintenance after it is installed. The interior of a building can also benefit from wind turbines, maintaining indoor air quality and reducing utility investments.

9. Locally Sourced Materials

Materials are sometimes transported over a long distance and a lot of energy is used in the transportation phase. With green construction, emphasis is placed on the use of locally-sourced materials. This is meant to reduce the carbon foot print, and creates a far more efficient construction process. Moreover, using materials that are available in any given city or town, construction companies can help support and grow local businesses.

 

Conclusion

The environmental benefits of eco-friendly construction are obvious. But there are other compelling reasons to implement green building practices that may not immediately come to mind. Examples:

  • Healthier and happier workers: Employees that work in green buildings report fewer headaches as well as improvements in asthma and allergies
  • Reduced energy costs
  • Ability to attract and retain top talent
  • Green buildings are generally able to sell for more money than standard buildings
  • Additional business opportunities by appealing to the ever-growing pool of conscious consumers

 

Gwalior Fort, Madhya Pradesh

Monday Flashback 22 – Gwalior Fort, Madhya Pradesh

THE GWALIOR FORT: GWALIOR

 

Gwalior Fort was assembled in 8th century by Suraj Sen. The castle stands on a retiring rock known as Gopachal. The fort was governed by many rulers of various reigns who also constructed many palaces and temples esoteric the fort. The united forces of Rani Lakshmi Bai and Tatya Tope also fought here against the British.

Gwalior

 

Gwalior district is located in Madhya Pradesh state of India. The city, positioned nearby Agra, has many mosques, palaces, temples and other structures. Tomars, Mughals, Marathas, and Scindias ruled the city in different periods. The city has hot subtropical climate from March to June, hot and humid climate from July to October and winter from November to February.

 

HISTORY

 

According to a folklore, Gwalior was once governed by a king named Suraj Sen. A time came when he was suffering from leprosy which was undying. A astute named Gwalipa gave him water from a blessed pond which healed his disease. In order to honour the astute, the king built the fort. The king got the title of Pal from the astute and a windfall that the fort will be in his custody and the groups to come. History says that 83 generations of the king successfully ruled from this fort but the king of 84th generation named Tej Karan could not shield the fort and vanished it.

 

TEMPLES

 

Gwalior Fort is one of the colossal forts of India. It includes many structures like palaces, temples, and water tanks. The fort is banquet in an area of 3km and is constructed at a height of 35 feet. There are two gates to enter the fort. One of them is Hathi Pol or elephant gate and other one is Badalgarh gate. Elephant gate is the main entrance to the fort. Many temples are there which are still in use.

 

 

Siddhachal Jain Temple Caves

 

Siddhachal Jain Temple Caves was built thru the period of 7th and 15th century. There are 32 Jain temples in the fort out of which eleven are faithful to the Jain Tirthankaras. The remaining ones are situated in south of the fort. Rishabhanath or Adinath was the first Jain Tirthankara and his ideal is the highest one as its height is 58 feet 4 inch or 17.78m.

 

Urvashi Temple

 

Urvashi is a temple in the fortress that consists of many idols of Tirthankaras meeting in countless postures. There are 24 idols of Jain Tirthankaras sitting in the pose of padmasana. Another clutch of 40 idols are sitting in the position of kayotsarga. The number of idols pared in the bulwarks are 840.

Gopachal

 

Gopachal is a hill which involves of 1500 pin-ups. The size of these ideals series from 6 inches to 57 feet. The era of figure these rock-cut leads is between 1341 and 1479. One of the largest idols is of Bhagwan Parsvanath whose height is 42bases and girth is 30 feet. 3. Gwalior Fort – Temples Gwalior Fort 8

 

Teli ka Mandir

 

Teli ka mandir or oilman’s temple is said to have been made in 8th or 11th century and was modernized in 19th century. The temple contains north and south Indian architectural graces. The temple was constructed in quadrilateral shape and people can enter the temple through a set of steps. Gwalior Fort 9 The door of the temple includes the idols of river divinities on top and their guides at the lower part. From the door, disciples cross the threshold the garbha griha. It is said that hitherto the temple was dedicated to Lord Vishnu and was later dedicated to Lord Shiva. The outer and inner part of the door consists of Shaiva and Shakta dvarpalas. The outer walls are carved with the statues of many Hindu gods and goddesses. There is also a Garuda monument near the temple loyal to Lord Vishnu.

Sas Bahu Temple

 

King Mahipal of Kachchhapaghata empire built Sas Bahu temple also well-known as Sahastrabahu temple. The area shielded by the temple is 32m x 22m. Aficionadas can enter the temple through three gates sited in three different directions. The main idols who are worshipped here are Brahma, Vishnu, and Saraswati and their ideals are located above the admission door. Gwalior Fort 10 The temple is called sas bahu temple because wife of Mahipal used to worship Lord Vishnu while her daughter-in-law used to piety Lord Shiva so another temple was constructed for her.

 

 

 

GWALIOR FORT PALACES

 

There are many palaces in the fort which are as tracks:

Man Mandir

 

Man Mandir palace was built by Raja Man Singh between 1486AD and 1517AD. The outward of the palace was adorned with tiles and the walls include carvings of ducks variable in water. There were large rooms which assisted as a music room for royal women.

 

Karan Mahal

 

Kirti Singh made this palace in the fort. He was the following king of Tomar dynasty. Karan Singh was another name of Kirti Singh and so the palace was entitled as Karan Mahal.

 

Vikram Mahal

 

Vikramaditya Singh was the hoarier brother of Man Singh. He raised Vikram Mahal which was also known as Vikram Mandir because it had a temple of Lord Shiva which was ruined during the Mughal period. The temple has now been renovated in front of the palace.

 

Gujari Mahal

 

Gujari Mahal was built by Raja Man Singh for his queen Mrignayani. She claimed a separate palace with endless water supply. The palace has now been changed into an archaeological exhibition hall. The museum now has weapons, statues, artifacts made of stones and other materials.

deeg palace, deeg, rajasthan

Monday Flashback 21 – Deeg Palace, Deeg Rajasthan

Deeg palace is a marvelous Sustainable piece of Architecture which is situated in the ancient city of Deeg.

Deeg was the capital of the Jat kings before they shifted to Bharatpur. Badan Singh, who came to the throne in 1721. King built a very beautiful palace here. Due to its imperative location and concurrence to Agra, Invaders attacked on Deeg many more times. Badan Sing ’s son, prince Suraj Mal, began the construction of a fortress around the palace around 1730. The fort had massive walls and a deep moat to keep away raiders.

Deeg was a site of a fabulous battle between the Jats and a combined Mughal and Maratha army of 8,000 men. Invigorated by his victory, Suraj Mal began making an invasion into enemy territory. After eight years of success in his sway, Suraj Mal captured Delhi and looted the Red Fort carrying away masses of valuables including an entire marble building, which was demolished and numbered. The palace was then overhauled at Deeg.

The Jat rulers were inveigled by the magnificence of the Mughal courts of Agra and Delhi. The design of the gardens has been inspired by the Mughal Charbagh.

The Deeg palace forms a quadrangle with a garden and walkways at its center. Decorative flowerbeds, shrubs, trees, and fountains cool the place considerably during summer. Two huge water tanks, Gopal Sagar and Rup Sagar, on either side also helped to bring down the temperature.

Keshav Bhawan, the monsoon pavilion, is a single-storeyed baradari placed on an octagonal base. It stands next to the Rup Sagar tank. The erection has five arches along each side which seem to divide it into parts. The walkway runs around the interior of the pavilion over a canal with hundreds of fountains. The walls of the canal are cleave with hundreds of minute water jets. Bullocks were employed with large leather “buckets” to draw water to the tank through a complex pulley system.

In festivals such as Holi, colors are added to the water. Small cloth pouches with biological colors were manually inserted into the holes in the stockpile wall. When the water flowed through them passing along an intricate network of pipelines, the fountains cascade colored water. Deeg Palace with its 900 fountains, which operate twice a year during the avamasaya festivals in February and September months.

The fountain spray and the jets create a monsoon-like atmosphere that is enhanced by a unique technique that produces a thunder-like sound all around the pavilion. Hundreds of metal balls placed strategically on the channel surrounding the roof are set rolling with the water pressure which results in a thunderous effect. The ambiance in a desert town must have been momentous for the Jat kings and queens.

King’s bedroom contains a massive black granite bed of the Maharaja. It had once served as a part of Parsi death rites, functioning as a platform for washing dead bodies.

 

Architecutre

The architecture of Deeg is mainly represented by the mansions called the Bhawans popularly known as Gopal Bhawan, Suraj Bhawan, Kishan Bhawan, Nand Bhawan, Keshav Bhawan, Hardev Bhawan. The striking features of these palaces are a balanced synopsis, fine proportions, commodious halls, attractive and logically disposed of arcades, charming greenery, charming tanks and canals with fountains. The layout of Deeg gardens is based on the formality of the Mughal Char bagh or fourfold garden patterns and belted by two reservoirs called namely Rup Sagar and Gopal Sagar.

The architecture is primarily of trabeate order, but the use of the arcuate system has also been made in certain instances. Mostly the arcades are of a decorative quality as each arch is formed by joining spandrel shaped slab cantilevers projecting from the pillars. The general features of this style are engrailed arches resting on rococo pillars, hypostyle halls flat roof terraces, balconies and pavilions with Bengal roofs, double eaves, moderate structural heights, and spacious subjective arrangements.

Deeg palace is a marvelous Sustainable piece of Architecture which is situated in the ancient city of Deeg.

rumi darwaza, lucknow

Monday Flashback 20 – Rumi Darwaza, Lucknow

RUMI DARWAZA – “A SYMBOL OF LUCKNOW’S TRYST WITH DESTINY” and a Unique Sustainable Structure in the City of Nawabs.

Rumi Darwaza was built by the fourth Nawab of Lucknow, Nawab Asaf-ud-Daula in 1784-86 and is believed to be similar to an old gate in Istanbul called Bab-iHümayun, and so is also sometimes referred to as Turkish Gate.

The 60 feet high gate is known for its architectural beauty, built for a noble cause. In 1748 North India, particularly Awadh, was facing the scarcity of food and employment and survival of most of the population was at stake. To help people overcome this Nawab Asaf-ud-Daula decided to build the Bara Imambara along with Rumi Darwaza for employment generation. Over the next two years, these illustrious buildings were constructed and is now there for everyone to see. This building symbolizes labor of love i.e. was constructed for pleasure and for no reward.

The architectural style of the Rumi Darwaza is completely in sync with the Nawabi architecture of Lucknow. The material used for the Darwaza is bricks coated with lime. The detailing on the Darwaza is more embellished thereby making it mesmerizing to see.

It is a huge sumptuous structure, marked by an eight faceted chhatri (umbrella) in its uppermost part that can be accessed by the staircase. In earlier times it was used to mark the entrance to the Old Lucknow City.

The most breathtaking about  Rumi Darwaza is lantern kept at the top that would light up the structure at night making it look thrillingly beautiful. Water sprinklers that rush out of the sides of the arch are in form of beautifully carved flower buds thus making it look like a passage to heaven. The beautifully carved flowers and designs speak volumes about the unique architectural style and eye for detail. The Rumi Darwaza is truly a grandeur and must visit if you are traveling to Lucknow.

The word “Rumi”  was derived from the modern day Rome that used to be Istanbul, the capital city of Eastern Roman Empire.

The Rumi Darwaza has become the existing symbol of Lucknow, depicting the royal Nawabi Culture, whether it’s tourism promotion or simply building a brand for the city.

 

 

 

Monday Flashback 19 – Maha Bodhi Temple, Bodhgaya Bihar

A unique property of cultural and archaeological importance and is also recognized by  UNESCO as World Heritage site in the world that spread over an area of 4.86 hectares. It is a great example of the earliest buildings which have sustained till now. The first temple was built by Emperor Asoka in the 3rd century BC (260 BC) around the Bodhi Tree, i.e. Ficus religiosa (to the west of the temple). Revered and sanctified as the place where Siddhartha Gautama Buddha was enlightened in 531 BC at age 35, and then propagated his divine knowledge of Buddhism to the world, it has been the ultimate temple for reverential worship, over the last several centuries, by Buddhists of all denominations, from all over the world who visits on pilgrimage. The main temple is 50 m in height, built in Indian architectural style, and it is the oldest temple in the Indian sub-continent built during the “Golden Age” of Indian culture credited to the Gupta period. Sculpted balustrades of the Asoka times (3rd century BC) are preserved in the Archaeological Museum located within the temple complex. It is considered to be a fine example of Indian brickwork, and was highly influential in the development of later architectural traditions.

In approximately 250 BCE, about 200 years after the Buddha attained Enlightenment, Buddhist Emperor Asoka visited Bodh Gaya with the intention of establishing a monastery and shrine. As part of the temple, he built the diamond throne (called the Vajrasana), attempting to mark the exact spot of the Buddha’s enlightenment. Prior to that, there seems to have been a pyramidal structure perhaps built in about the second century (Kusana period). Knowledge of it comes only from a small, circa fourth century terracotta plaque found at modern Patna. The pyramidal temple probably replaced an open pavilion that had been constructed around the tree and the Asokan platform, during the reconstruction.

The four towers on the corners rise elegantly, escorting the main tower to an extent. Encircled on all four sides by stone railings, Mahabodhi Temple bears railings of two types, equally in style and material. The older railings are made from sandstone and trace their origin around 150 BC. Dating back to Gupta period (300 CE – 600 CE), the other railings are erected from unpolished coarse granite. The old railings comprise images of Hindu deities, while the later ones have got figures of stupas (reliquary shrines) and garudas (eagles).

Building Sustainable Materials that are used in the building –

  1. Brick-  Brick structure assemblies possess two unique characteristics – usually not accounted for in R-value measurements –     that significantly contribute to energy performance and reduce energy costs. These properties are Thermal mass and airspace.
  2. Sandstone- This stone is very eco-friendly

  •  It has a relatively low carbon footprint as it uses a very small percentage of the energy needed to stone like concrete or brick.

  • No chemicals are used in the production or processing of sandstone, so it does not create any chemical waste. All water used in producing the stone can be recycled and reused.

  1. Granite- Granite & marble are highly recyclable and reusable, as well as durable.

Suggested Improvements & Solution-

Use of footwear is banned on the shrine premises and the devotees have to walk through extremely hot marble during the summers and in winters the marble floor is extremely cold. The pathway was slippery too.

Mahabodhi Temple premises are carpeted with artificial grass. Besides giving a more serene look to the seat of  Budhha’s enlightenment, the synthetic grass carpet will provide relief to barefooted devotees.

Important Features of Mahabodhi Temples-

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